Why is it difficult to determine the prenatal effects of many environmental agents teratogens such as drugs alcohol and pollution?

It is difficult to completely determine the effects of a particular illicit drug on a developing child because most mothers, who use, use more than one substance.

Why is it difficult to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to some environmental agents?

Polydrug use, genetic, and environmental factors make it difficult to identify the specific direct effects of prenatal drug exposure on children’s outcome. If these factors are not accounted for, developmental effects may be erroneously attributed to prenatal drug exposure (Type I error).

Why are teratogens harmful to prenatal development?

As a baby grows in the womb, teratogens may affect parts of the baby’s body as they are forming. For example, the neural tube closes in the first 3 to 5 weeks of the pregnancy. During this time, teratogens can cause neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

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What are teratogens and how do they impact development in the prenatal environment?

A teratogen is any agent that causes an abnormality following fetal exposure during pregnancy. Teratogens are usually discovered after an increased prevalence of a particular birth defect. For example, in the early 1960’s, a drug known as thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness.

What are the challenges of teratogens?

Teratogens may affect the embryo or fetus in a number of ways, causing physical malformations, problems in the behavioral or emotional development of the child, and decreased intellectual quotient (IQ) in the child.

What is Teratology and what are some of the main threats to prenatal development?

The study of factors that contribute to birth defects is called teratology. Teratogens are environmental factors that can contribute to birth defects, and include some maternal diseases, pollutants, drugs and alcohol.

Which factor influences the effects of teratogens quizlet?

The impact of teratogens varies with amount and length of exposure, genetic make-up of mother and fetus, presence of other harmful agents, and age of the organism. The developing organism is especially vulnerable during the embryonic period.

When are teratogens most harmful during pregnancy?

Time of exposure: Teratogens are most harmful early in pregnancy, starting about 10 to 14 days after conception to about 8 weeks into pregnancy.

What are some teratogens that affect the fetus?

Common teratogens include some medications, recreational drugs, tobacco products, chemicals, alcohol, certain infections, and in some cases, uncontrolled health problems in the birthing parent. Alcohol is a well-known teratogen that can cause harmful effects on the fetus after exposure at any time during pregnancy.

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What are four environmental hazards that can affect a fetus?

These chemicals include commonly known hazards such as lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke, as well as some pesticides, solvents, products containing chlorine, and other chemicals referred to as “persistent organic pollutants.” The fetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental chemicals that can disrupt …

How does alcohol affect prenatal development?

Alcohol present in a developing baby’s bloodstream can interfere with the development of the brain and other critical organs, structures, and physiological systems. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the United States.

How can teratogens be avoided during pregnancy?

Do not use chemicals that may harm your child – This includes pesticides, fungicides, rodenticides, or harsh cleaning products. Do not smoke, use drugs or consume alcohol during pregnancy – These teratogens greatly increase the risk of fetal birth defects and other life threatening conditions.

When is the developing nervous system most vulnerable to teratogens after conception quizlet?

Why does the timing of teratogenic exposure matter? – The effects of a teratogenic agent are worst during the critical period when an organ system grows most rapidly. – Organogenesis takes place during the embryonic period (weeks 3-8 of prenatal development).

When do teratogens have their greatest effects quizlet?

Teratogens do more damage when they occur at some points in development than at others. Damage during the germinal period may even prevent implantation. In general, the embryonic period is more vulnerable than the fetal period.