The ocean is amazingly diverse. Life in the ocean ranges from the smallest microscopic bacteria and viruses to the largest animal ever to have lived on Earth—the blue whale. Biodiversity refers to variation among living things within an ecosystem. This includes variation in plants, animals, fungi, and micro organisms.
What is the biodiversity in the ocean?
The world’s oceans contain somewhere between 500,000 and 10 million marine species. bacteria, other microbes and viruses. Much of the biodiversity in the ocean, particularly in the deep sea and in the microbial ocean, is unknown, and up to 2,000 new species are described per year.
What is marine biodiversity in simple words?
Biodiversity can be defined in several ways, but it generally refers to the number of species types in a particular ecosystem. Marine biodiversity therefore refers to the species richness and abundance in the world’s oceans and seas. … Having diverse ecosystems makes organisms and systems more resilient to changes.
Why is biodiversity so important in our oceans?
Healthy marine ecosystems are important for society since they provide services including food security, feed for livestock , raw materials for medicines, building materials from coral rock and sand, and natural defenses against hazards such as coastal erosion and inundation. …
Is the sea biodiverse?
‘ The Mediterranean Sea, for example, is one of the world’s hot spots for biodiversity. Its highly diverse ecosystems host up to around 18% of the world’s macroscopic marine biodiversity (Nike Bianchi and Morri, 2000), or potentially over 17,000 species (Coll et al., 2010).
Which ocean has the most biodiversity?
It contains 45,389 km of coastline. There are 400 known fish species living in Arctic seas and adjacent waters, most living on or near the bottom. So, based on global fisheries and the overall biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems, the Pacific Ocean wins for most marine life.
Does the ocean have a high biodiversity?
What is marine biodiversity? … In its simplest form, biodiversity or biological diversity is therefore ‘Life on Earth’ and includes marine biodiversity ‘Life in the Seas and Oceans. ` The marine environment has a very high biodiversity because 32 out of the 33 described animal phyla are represented in there.
Why is biodiversity important?
Biodiversity is important to humans for many reasons. … Ecological life support— biodiversity provides functioning ecosystems that supply oxygen, clean air and water, pollination of plants, pest control, wastewater treatment and many ecosystem services.
Why do oceans have low biodiversity?
Biological diversity in the oceans has decreased dramatically since industrialization began in the 19th century. The primary causes for the losses include the destruction of habitats by trawler fishing, pollution and eutrophication of the seas, as well as the steady progress of climate change.
What affects biodiversity in the ocean?
Fishing, land use change are the most significant threats to marine biodiversity. In the ocean, fishing has had the single greatest impact on biodiversity over the past 50 years. … Carbon dioxide emissions are making the ocean more acidic, making it harder for shellfish, corals, and types of plankton to survive.
What are some examples of species diversity?
So, some examples may include the presence of four or five different species of tree in a woodland forest, or perhaps 100 different species of fish, crustaceans and coral in a certain reef.