# What are climate models how have they been used to make future climate change projections?

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Climate models are sets of mathematical equations based on the laws of physics, chemistry, and biology that are used to understand Earth’s changing climate. Because climate cannot be studied in a laboratory, these models are run on computers to make projections of how the climate is changing.

## What is the climate model?

Climate models, also known as general circulation models or GCMs, use mathematical equations to characterize how energy and matter interact in different parts of the ocean, atmosphere, land.

## What are climate model projections?

Climate projections are simulations of the future climate performed using models that represent physical processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, biosphere and land, as well as the interactions between them.

## How does a climate model study climate change?

Climate models divide the globe into a three-dimensional grid of cells representing specific geographic locations and elevations. Each of the components (atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice) has equations calculated on the global grid for a set of climate variables such as temperature.

## How do you make a climate model?

Constructing a climate model involves a number of steps:

1. Building a 3-D map of the Earth’s climate system. The basic building blocks of climate models are 3-D “grid cells” that contain climate-related physical information about a particular location. …
2. Developing computer code. …
3. Making the model run through time.
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## How are climate models different from weather prediction models?

Essentially, climate models are an extension of weather forecasting. But whereas weather models make predictions over specific areas and short timespans, climate models are broader and analyze long timespans. They predict how average conditions will change in a region over the coming decades.

## How do climate models help?

Climate models help scientists to test their understanding of our climate system, and to predict future changes to our climate. Scientists use climate models to evaluate their understanding of the climate, and test out their ideas. … Scientists also use climate models to predict the future climate.